Vitamins and minerals are used by the body as a working part of certain enzymes. Vitamins and minerals that form part of an enzyme are called coenzymes and cofactors. They are needed for specific reactions which take place in different metabolic pathways in the body. These reactions are essential for breaking down food and molecules for energy but also in the creation of new molecules too.
Amongst others, the vitamins and cofactors which are applicable to the different metabolic pathways include:
- thiamine (vitamin B1)
- riboflavin (vitamin B2)
- niacin and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)
- pantothenate (vitamin B5) and coenzyme A,
- pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
- biotin (vitamin B7)
- folate (vitamin B9)
- cobalamin (vitamin B12)
- molybdenum cofactor
Some others (such as Coenzyme Q10) are incorporated into other disorder groups.